孙少平的奋斗与挣扎

《平凡的世界》读后感,写于2013年,首发在豆瓣,不知道为什么读的人还挺多,不时有人收藏的提醒发给我,故此在博客里也放一份。

正文:

大学时囫囵吞枣地读了《平凡的世界》,最大的感慨是为什么生活如此不公?这么努力奋斗的主人公孙少平,最后是落得个恋人出事故牺牲、自己因事故残疾的下场,或许一辈子都得在那黑不溜秋的煤矿里生活了。

如今重读,就觉得孙少平本人对自己人生的理解,与我们这些旁观者是不同的。我们难免替他愤怒,同情他的遭遇,但他其实一直都是坦然地承受着。

回顾一下孙少平的故事。

高中时的孙少平,衣衫褴褛,是全校连丙菜也吃不起的少数人之一,属于最贫困的那群人。也曾为此自卑,比如经常是在等其他同学都离开食堂后再去食堂拿他的两个黑馍馍。又经历了初恋的失败,还差点辍学。然而,孙少平骨子里就是强者,也是一位有“自知之明”的人,对自己有着不偏不倚的自我认知,从不好高骛远。他通过不断地阅读、思考,进行了不断的自我教育,他认对自己的定位就是个普通人,应该按照普通人那样成长,当然普通人也能“普通”而“不平庸”,即便是最平凡的小事,也能体现出一个人的人格。

作为被十年文革耽误的一代,又是贫民子弟,考大学落榜在所难免。按他的家庭条件,即便是考上也不一定能去读。孙少平在完成高中学业后,别无选择地回乡劳动。先是在村里的小学教书,因为一些原因不能再教书后,他不甘心在村里度过他余下的人生, 感到自己应该继续去追寻理想。为了摆脱面朝黄土背朝天的命运,他毅然说服父兄同意他去黄原揽工。可见孙少平是一位有知识、有文化、有理想的农村人,很难放弃对更广阔天地的向往和追求。

“态度决定一切”,认识指导行动。在黄原的时候,孙少平依然展现出了相当的自尊,同时这也是一种自信。他认为尽管社会地位和生活处境的不同,但每个人在人格上是平等的。这个出类拔萃的思考在日后他与田晓霞的爱情中也有所体现。他在曹书记家帮工,由于他出色的表现,曹书记夫妻多给了他25元,他没有要,反而另外拿出5元钱,以“遇到好主家”为由算作是给主家的回报。这样的孙少平当然是深受曹书记夫妻的喜爱,甚至私下里就把他当作了自己的“准女婿”,帮他把户口从双水村转到了黄原城郊。如果说孙少平顺利高中毕业是自己对“农村出身”的第一次挣脱,那么户口的转出,可以说是他的第二次挣脱,使他初步完成了身份,或者说阶层的跨越。

他遇到了田晓霞,这是位孙少平人生当中特别重要的角色。在思想上,彼此能够顺畅地交流,是彼此的良师益友, 到后来爱情顺其自然地滋生,也彼此给予了爱情上的满足。在田晓霞的帮助下,孙少平通过大量的阅读,在精神层次上已经大大超越了普通农民的局限。他的视野更广阔, 他对人生的艰难困苦有了更多的理解,也因此能够更加平心静气地对待欢乐和幸福。

后来他去桐城煤矿当了一名普通的煤矿工人,很辛苦,但是工作和收入稳定,更重要的是,这意味着他完成了阶级跨越,从“农民阶级”转成了“工人阶级”,这是他人生中第三次成功的挣脱。他对自己煤矿工人的身份产生了很深的认同,当他第一次踏进矿区的时候,就觉得自己未来的人生将在这里度过了。不仅如此,在他的人生规划里,除了踏实做好矿工的本职工作之外,是有机会就去报考局里办的煤炭技术学校。

孙少平经过自己的奋斗,经过他的三次对命运的“挣脱”,从某种程度上其实已经是一个“成功者”了。但凡人都有困难,即便他一直都坦然命运,他还是陷入了精神上的苦恼,那就是他和田晓霞的爱情。他们是双水村老乡,可田晓霞的起点却比他高出许多,她是大学生,又是省报记者,更有一位担任市一把手,后成为省里高级领导干部的父亲。孙少平只是个农民出身的煤矿工人,两人身份背景的巨大差距,加之他对自己未来人生道路的规划,让他在内心深处对这份沉甸甸的爱情并没有寄托希望。当然,与他的大哥孙少安对润叶的爱情采取逃避和各安天命的态度不同,孙少平虽常怀理智、常有悲观,他毕竟是为这段感情付出了努力,他知道田晓霞对他的爱坚定不移,他们的爱情建立在“精神共鸣”上,有着坚强的基础,他必须要不懈的追求生活。

遗憾的是命运没有偏爱孙少平,也没有给予他对等的回报。在他和晓霞的两年之约即将到来,在彼此即将拥有爱情上最大的满足之时,田晓霞却意外因公殉职了!这让两人跨越阶级,冲破巨大差异而结合的“希望进行曲”戛然而止。这是孙少平人生中重大的打击,也是全书最让我觉得沉痛的事件,我们一直以来自强不息的主人公命途多舛,人生之艰难无法预料。

可能这才是现实而残酷的“平凡的世界”。

但不管怎么说,爱情上的挣扎和不幸,并没有击垮孙少平。旁观孙少平一路走来,他没有辜负自己的人生,他在已有的条件下,做了自己最大的努力。在心态上, 始终保持理智,这就非常令人敬佩。故事结束了,但孙少平的人生没有结束,我们可以想见,孙少平伤愈后回到煤矿工作,不论他考没考上煤矿技术学校,他和惠英嫂母子有没有组成新的温暖的家庭,他都将继续走在对自己人生和思想的不懈超越的道路上。

而田晓霞,将永远活在他的心里。

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孙少平的奋斗与挣扎》有6条回应

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